Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is a blockage of the bladder. It is sometimes also referred to as fetal lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO). This blockage prevents the urine flow into the amniotic fluid. Because of this, the amniotic fluid level can become very low. Low amniotic fluid levels (oligohydramnios) impair the developing lungs causing them to become very small (hypoplastic). Babies with little or no amniotic fluid early in gestation (before 24 weeks) may have severely underdeveloped lungs. As a result, these babies have a poor chance of survival. Babies that have a moderate amount of fluid do better as their lungs are able to mature.
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A congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) means there is a hole in the diaphragm. The hole permits the abdominal organs to move into the chest area before birth. Because of this shift into the chest, the lung on the side of the hole is prevented from growing normally. The lung on the opposite side is also smaller than expected. Small lungs can also be called pulmonary hypoplasia.
Esophageal atresia (EA) is an anomaly seen in babies when the esophagus, or swallowing tube, is not a complete open tube. Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a connection most babies with EA have of one or both ends of the esophagus to the trachea (breathing tube). EA/TEF is rare, occurring in 1 in 2,500 births. The cause of EA/TEF is unknown.
The Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment Center provides accurate prenatal diagnosis of birth defects using the latest technological advances. An individualized treatment plan is established that includes high-risk pregnancy management, fetal treatment, delivery planning, and postnatal treatment.
The Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment Center, part of Michigan Medicine, offers comprehensive fetal diagnostic and treatment services, utilizing the latest technological advances in diagnostics, minimally invasive surgeries and open surgeries to best care for a pregnant mother carrying a fetus with a birth defect
Fetal Endoscopic Tracheal Occlusion (FETO) is a research procedure offered at Michigan Medicine for fetuses with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. FETO has been shown to increase lung volumes in fetuses with CDH and there is hope it will increase the chance of survival with severe CDH.
Michigan Medicine’s Fetal Diagnosis & Treatment Center offers the full range of fetal procedures from an expert team to diagnose and treat conditions before a child is born.
Fetal surgery covers a broad range of surgical procedures performed on a fetus to treat various medical conditions, such as spina bifida, TTTS, and more.
Gastroschisis refers to an opening, or ‘hole’, in the abdominal wall. This defect, or ‘hole’, occurs very early in gestation—around the 6th week of development.The defect allows the baby’s bowel, and sometimes other organs, to move outside the body for the remainder of the pregnancy.
A fetal neck mass is a condition in which there is an abnormal growth in the neck of the fetus. Both types of giant neck mass - cervical teratomas and lymphatic malformation’s - can obstruct the airway or cause other complications in the developing baby. These masses can be prenatally diagnosed and assessed using ultrasound.
At Michigan Medicine, our Maternal-Fetal Medicine Division works together with a team of specialists to manage high-risk pregnancies, optimize fetal well being, educate and support families and provide hope to the tiniest of patients.
Lung malformations, including congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM, formerly called CCAM) and bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS), are uncommon disorders that can cause a wide range of problems, including breathing difficulties, recurrent infection, and more rarely, cancer.
Omphalocele refers to an opening, or hole, in the abdominal wall. During prenatal development, the bowel and liver protrude through the hole and remain outside of the abdomen. These organs are covered by a thin layer of tissue known as a sac. The umbilical cord inserts into the sac. The size of the howl can range from small to very large. Omphalocele occurs in about 1 in every 5,000 births, and more often in mothers over the age of 35 years.
Myelomeningocele is a defect of the spine, and of the passage inside the spine called the spinal canal. It can occur at any point along the spine. During early fetal development, the spine comes together like a zipper covering the spinal cord and nerves. Incomplete closure of the spine is referred to as spina bifida, or a neural tube defect.
Accurate prenatal diagnosis of birth defects using the latest technological advances is offered at the U-M Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment Center. Each patient benefits from coordinated collaboration with specialists from multiple disciplines to provide an individualized treatment plan that includes high-risk pregnancy management, fetal treatment when indicated, delivery planning and postnatal treatment for your child.
A sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is a tumor located at the base of the spine, often called the ‘tail bone’ in the area just above the buttocks. This kind of tumor is made up of different cells found during very early development. The tumor usually has both solid and cystic (fluid-filled) parts. Tumors with a greater cystic (fluid-filled) component may grow more slowly than those with more solid tissue. Some of the more solid tumors have a very large blood supply that can cause complications during the pregnancy and in the post-operative period. Large tumors can extend into the pelvis and affect other organs.
Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) is a rare diagnosis in which one twin develops normally (the “pump twin”) and the other twin never develops as expected and gets all of its blood supply through the placenta from the other baby (the "“TRAP fetus” or “acardiac fetus") because it either has a very underdeveloped heart or no heart at all. It is a very rare type of twinning that is only seen in pregnancies with only one placenta, happening in about 1 in every 35,000 identical twin births.
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a rare complication of pregnancy that develops in 10-15% of twins when the babies share the same placenta (monochorionic). TTTS can occur with triplet or quadruplet gestations if babies share the same placenta. All babies who share a placenta share blood between them through connecting blood vessels. If the blood is shared equally, the babies will do fine. If there is unequal sharing of blood flow that can cause TTTS. It may develop any time in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.