Research has linked over-the-counter cough and cold products to poisoning or death in hundreds of children, ages 2 and younger. Studies have also shown that these medicines do little to control symptoms. As a result, in 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration formally recommended that OTC cough and cold products not be given to children under age 2.
A poll released today by the C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health
shows that 61-percent of parents of children, ages 2 and younger, gave their children OTC cough and cold medicine within the last 12 months. The poll also shows that more than half of parents report that their child’s doctor says OTC cough and cold medications are safe for children under 2; half of their physicians said they are effective.
“FDA warnings about OTC cough and cold medicines prompted a voluntary recall of products marketed for children younger than 2 years,” says Matthew Davis, M.D.,
director of the poll and associate professor in the Child Health Evaluation and Research Unit at the U-M Medical School
. “We wanted to see how well parents and physicians were adopting those recommendations. Unfortunately, this latest poll indicates that the FDA warnings have gone unheeded by the majority of parents, and surprisingly, many physicians.”
In January 2011, the C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health asked parents across the U.S. with children, ages 6-months to 2-years, about using OTC cough and cold medicines.
- While about 61-percent of parents with children, ages 2 and under, have given their children OTC cough and cold medicines within the last 12 months, use of such medicines differs by race/ethnicity—higher among black (80 percent) and Hispanic (69 percent) than among white parents (57 percent).
- Use also differs by income—highest (80 percent) in families with annual income of less than $30,000 and lowest (41percent) in families with income of $100,000 or more.
- Use is not different if the parent had older children at home.
- When deciding whether to use an OTC medicine, two-thirds of parents report wanting their child to be able to sleep better or to be more comfortable during the day as “very important” reasons for using the medications.
- 56 percent of parents say having their child’s health care provider recommend the medicine was very important.
“There are challenges to informing parents about this topic,” says Davis, who is also an associate professor of public policy at the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy
. “The FDA warning is specific to young children, age 2 and under—but parents of those kids may not have heard the warnings issued more than two years ago. Each year a ‘new generation’ of parents must be educated about a wide variety of health care issues for their children.
“Physicians are a valuable source of information for parents about this issue, but it appears that physicians are not heeding FDA warnings about OTC cough and cold medicines either. Kids will be safer when parents and doctors are all on the same page in limiting these medicines to older children.”
Further work is needed to verify that child health care providers understand FDA warnings about OTC cough and cold medicines, and to ensure that health care providers are giving parents clear and consistent messages about these medicines’ safety and effectiveness.
Purpose/Funding: The C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health – based at the Child Health Evaluation and Research (CHEAR) Unit at the University of Michigan and funded by the Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases and the University of Michigan Health System – is designed to measure major health care issues and trends for U.S. children.
Data Source: This report presents findings from a nationally representative household survey conducted exclusively by Knowledge Networks, Inc, for C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital via a method used in many published studies. The survey was administered in January 2011 to a randomly selected, stratified group of parents aged 18 and older with children age 6 months to 2 years (n=349) with children from the Knowledge Networks standing panel that closely resembles the U.S. population. The sample was subsequently weighted to reflect population figures from the Census Bureau. The survey completion rate was 60% among parent panel members contacted to participate. The margin of sampling error is plus or minus 5 to 15 percentage points.